Friday, December 31, 2010

supercompensation


In sports science theory, supercompensation is the post training period during which the trained function/parameter has a higher performance capacity than it did prior to the training period.

The fitness level of a human body in training can be broken down into four periods: initial fitness, training, recovery, and supercompensation. During the initial fitness period, the target of the training has a base level of fitness (shown by the first time sector in the graph). Upon entering the training period, the target's level of fitness decreases (training is a catabolic process, shown by the second time sector in the graph). After training, the body enters the recovery period during which level of fitness increases up to the initial fitness level (shown by the third time sector in the graph). Because the human body is an adjustable organism, it will feel the need to adjust itself to a higher level of fitness in anticipation of the next training session.

Accordingly, the increase in fitness following a training session does not stop at the initial fitness level. Instead the body enters a period of supercompensation during which fitness surpasses the initial fitness level (shown by the fourth time sector in the graph). If there are no further workouts, the body's fitness level will slowly decline back towards the initial fitness level (shown by the last time sector in the graph).

If the next workout takes place during the recovery period, Overtraining may occur. If the next workout takes place during the supercompensation period, the body will advance to a higher level of fitness. If the next workout takes place after the supercompensation period, the body will remain at the base level.

Thursday, December 30, 2010

bhangmeter

A bhangmeter is a type of photometer used on spy satellites that is intended to detect atmospheric nuclear detonations.

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

crore

A crore (Hindi: करोड़) (often abbreviated cr) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to ten million (10,000,000; 107), or 100 lakh. It is widely used in Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan. It was 500,000 in the now-obsolete Persian number system.

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

humanzee

The humanzee (also known as the Chuman or Manpanzee) is a hypothetical chimpanzee/human hybrid. Chimpanzees and humans are very closely related (95% of their DNA sequence, and 99% of coding DNA sequences are in common), leading to contested speculation that a hybrid is possible, though no specimen has ever been confirmed.

Monday, December 27, 2010

Sunday, December 26, 2010

Amblyopia

Amblyopia, otherwise known as lazy eye, is a disorder of the visual system that is characterized by poor or indistinct vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal, or out of proportion to associated structural abnormalities. It has been estimated to affect 1–5% of the population.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

Tannenbaum

Tannenbaum, Tanenbaum, or Tenenbaum is a German word meaning fir tree, usually referring to Christmas trees.

Friday, December 24, 2010

backdraft

A backdraft is a situation which can occur when a fire is starved of oxygen; consequently combustion ceases but the fuel gases and smoke remain at high temperature. If oxygen is re-introduced to the fire, eg. by opening a door to a closed room, combustion can restart often resulting in an explosive effect as the gases heat and expand (see also flashover).

Thursday, December 23, 2010

brigade


A brigade is a military unit that is typically composed of two to five regiments or battalions, depending on the era and nationality of a given army. Usually, a brigade is a sub-component of a division, a larger unit consisting of two or more brigades; however, some brigades are classified as a separate brigade and operate independently from the traditional division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of approximately 4,000 to 5,000 troops. However, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Broadsiding


Broadsiding is the method used in motorcycle speedway for travelling round the bends on the speedway track. The rider skids his rear wheel by spinning it at such a speed that it sets up a gyroscopic action and this opposes the natural tendencies of centrifugal force. Then he controls the slide by throttle control to maintain, increase or decrease the rate of which the rear wheel spins. Motorcycle speedway bikes have no brakes or suspension. The rider can scrub-off speed while still providing the drive to power the bike forward and around the bend.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Meshawah

Meshawah is the traditional dish in the UAE made out of dried fish and mix of spices with water and salt that is kept in the sun for the period of 30 days. It is eaten with bread or rice and usually mixed with onions.

The dish is common among United Arab Emirates people out of Irani origin.

Monday, December 20, 2010

.

Anent:
  1. (obsolete) Against, in front of.
  2. (obsolete) Concerning, with regard to.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Saturday, December 18, 2010

jimmies


Sprinkles (also known as jimmies or hundreds-and-thousands, or by many other names) are very small pieces of confectionery used as a decoration or to add texture to desserts – typically cupcakes, cookies, doughnuts, ice cream, and some puddings. The candies, which are produced in a variety of colors, are usually too small to be eaten individually and are in any case not intended to be eaten by themselves, being nearly flavorless.

Friday, December 17, 2010

Lachanophobia

Lachanophobia: fear of vegetables.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

homothety

In mathematics, a homothety (or homothecy or non-rotating dilation) is a transformation of space which takes each line into a parallel line (in essence, a similarity that allows reflection in a single point, but otherwise preserves orientation). All homotheties form a group in either affine or Euclidean geometry. Congruent examples of homotheties are translations, reflections, and the identity transformation.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Tchochke

Tchochke—originally from a Slavic word for "toys" (Ukrainian цяцька, tsyatska; Polish cacka, tsatska; Russian цацки, tsatski)—adapted to Yiddish טשאַטשקע tshatshke, "trinket", are small toys, gewgaws, knickknacks, baubles, trinkets, or kitsch. The term has a connotation of worthlessness or disposability, as well as tackiness, and was long used in the Jewish-American community and in the regional speech of New York City.

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Ganjuro


Ganguro (ガングロ; "Black Face Girls") is an alternative fashion trend of blonde or orange hair and tanned skin among young Japanese women that peaked in popularity around the year 2000, but remains evident today. The purpose is to elicit the iconic look of tanned, blonde girls of California, USA or Chavs/Neds of the UK. The Shibuya and Ikebukuro districts of Tokyo are the center of ganguro fashion.

Monday, December 13, 2010

Kazookelele

A kazoo / ukelele

Sunday, December 12, 2010

Scoopwheel


A Scoop wheel or Scoopwheel pump is similar in construction to a water wheel, but works in the opposite manner: a waterwheel is water-powered and used to drive machinery, a scoop wheel is engine-driven and is used to lift water from one level to another. Principally used for land drainage, early scoop wheels were wind-driven but later steam-powered beam engines were used. It can be regarded as a form of pump.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

Friday, December 10, 2010

Lavaka


Lavaka, the Malagasy word for "hole", is a type of erosional feature common in Madagascar. They are most abundant in the central highlands of Madagascar, where there are deep laterites developed on in steep terrain in a monsoonal climate. Lavakas form where hard laterites overlie thick (tens of meters) saprolite, on steep (35 to 55 degree) slopes, in areas that have a hot dry season and a warm wet season.

Lavakas are not landslides. They are a type of gully, formed via groundwater sapping. Associated erosion is usually rapid, producing a sediment yield on the order of 8000 cubic metres over several months.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

ultralight


During the late 1970s and early 1980s, many people sought to be able to fly affordably. As a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying aeroplanes that could be subject to minimum regulation. The resulting aeroplanes are commonly called ultralight or microlight, although the weight and speed limits differ from country to country.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

movator


A moving walkway, moving sidewalk, moving pavement (elsewhere), autopedescalator, walkalator, travelator, autowalk, horizontal escalator, slidewalk or movator is a slow conveyor belt that transports people horizontally or on an incline in a similar manner to an escalator. In both cases, passengers can walk or stand. The walkways are often installed in pairs, one for each direction.

Monday, December 6, 2010

Megaminx


The Megaminx is a dodecahedron-shaped puzzle similar to the Rubik's Cube. It has a total of 50 movable pieces to rearrange, compared to the 20 of the Rubik's cube.

Sunday, December 5, 2010

Arbitration


Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the "arbitrators", "arbiters" or "arbitral tribunal"), by whose decision (the "award") they agree to be bound. It is a settlement technique in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding for both sides.

Other forms of ADR include mediation (a form of settlement negotiation facilitated by a neutral third party) and non-binding resolution by experts. It is more helpful, however, simply to classify arbitration as a form of binding dispute resolution, equivalent to litigation in the courts, and entirely distinct from the other forms of dispute resolution, such as negotiation, mediation, or determinations by experts, which are usually non-binding. Arbitration is most commonly used for the resolution of commercial disputes, particularly in the context of international commercial transactions. The use of arbitration is far more controversial in consumer and employment matters, where arbitration is not voluntary but is instead imposed on consumers or employees through fine-print contracts, denying individuals of their right to access the courts.

Image is by Public Citizen.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

Patina


Patina (pronounced /ˈpætənə/ or /pəˈtiːnə/) is a film on the surface of bronze or similar metals (produced by oxidation over a long period); a sheen on wooden furniture produced by age, wear, and polishing; or any such acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. On metal, patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as oxides or carbonates formed on the surface during exposure to the elements (weathering). Patina also refers to accumulated changes in surface texture and colour that result from normal use of an object such as a coin or a piece of furniture over time.

Friday, December 3, 2010

décollement

A décollement horizon in tectonics is a surface that acts as a gliding plane between two masses in a thrust fault relationship. A décollement horizon can either form due to a low bulk modulus between bodies (usually in lithologies such as marls, shales and evaporites), or can form along planes of high pore pressures.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Teutobod

Teutobod (or Theudobod) was King of the Teutons. In the late 2nd century BCE, together with their neighbours, allies and possible relatives, the Cimbri, the Teutons migrated from their original homes in southern Scandinavia and on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, south into the Danube valley, southern Gaul and northern Italy. Here they began to intrude upon the lands of Rome (Julius Caesar, in his Gallic Wars account De Bello Gallico, reports that the Boii were they who had attacked Noricum).

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Josephinism


Josephinism is the term used to describe the domestic policies of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1765-1790). During the ten years in which Joseph was the sole ruler of the Habsburg empire (1780-1790), he attempted to legislate a series of drastic reforms to remodel Austria in the form of the ideal Enlightened state. This provoked severe resistance from powerful forces within and outside of his empire, but ensured that he would be remembered as an “enlightened ruler.”