Wednesday, December 31, 2014

interrobang

The interrobang, also known as the interabang, (play /ɪnˈtɛrəbæŋ/), (often represented by ?! or !?), is a nonstandard punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark (also called the “interrogative point”) and the exclamation mark or exclamation point (known in printers’ jargon as the “bang”). . The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. It is present in Unicode as U+203D interrobang.

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Congener

Congener (from Latin congener "of the same race or kind," from com- "together" + gener-, stem of genus "kind") has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. Colloquially, it is used to mean a person or thing like another, in character or action.

In biology, congeners are organisms within the same genus. A related term -- referring to members of the same species -- is conspecific.

In chemistry, congeners are related chemicals, e.g., elements in the same group of the periodic table, or derivatives thereof.

In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners, also known as fusel oils, are substances produced during fermentation

Monday, December 29, 2014

Crudités

Crudités are traditional French appetizers comprising sliced or whole raw vegetables which are sometimes dipped in a vinaigrette or other dipping sauce. Crudités often include celery sticks, carrot sticks, bell pepper strips, broccoli, cauliflower, and asparagus spears; sometimes olives depending on local customs.

The French word "crudité", which designates uncooked vegetables, originates in much the same way as the English word "crude," from Latin. The Latin word "crūdus" simply means raw. Later, it was refined to "crūditās", which means "undigested food" and then on to "crudité" in French.

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Misophonia

Misophonia, literally “hatred of sound,” is a form of decreased sound tolerance. It is characterized by negative experiences resulting only from specific sounds, whether loud or soft, and is often used interchangeably with the term Selective Sound Sensitivity. The term was coined by American neuroscientists Pawel Jastreboff and Margaret Jastreboff.

Unlike hyperacusis, misophonia is specific for certain sounds. Little is known about the anatomical location of the physiological abnormality that causes such symptoms but it is most likely high central nervous system structures. It is believed to result from abnormally strong connections between the autonomic and limbic systems in the brain, rather than over-activity of the auditory system. A subcortical route within non-classical auditory pathways may be indicated in the condition. Misophonia appears to reflect the auditory symptoms of sensory processing disorder, which typically presents in multiple sensory modes, but more research is needed to understand if, or how the conditions may be related.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

polynuclear

polynuclear

  1. having multiple nuclei

Friday, December 26, 2014

Aryan

Aryan /ˈɛərjən/ is an English language loanword derived from the Sanskrit ārya ('Noble'). In present-day academia, the terms "Indo-Iranian" and "Indo-European" have, according to many, made most uses of the term 'Aryan' minimal, and 'Aryan' is now mostly limited to its appearance in the term "Indo-Aryan" to represent (speakers of) North, West and Central Indian languages.

Western notions of an "Aryan race" rose to prominence in late-19th and early-20th century racialist thought, an idea most notably embraced by Nazi ideology (see master race). The Nazis believed that the "Nordic peoples" (who were also referred to as the "Germanic peoples") represent an ideal and "pure race" that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans. The Nazis declared that the Nordics were the true Aryans because they claimed that they were more "pure" (less racially mixed with non-native Indo-European peoples) than other people of what were then called the Aryan peoples (now generally called the Indo-European peoples).

Thursday, December 25, 2014

chattel

chattel (plural chattels)

  1. Tangible, movable property.
  2. A slave.

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Filk

Filk is a musical culture, genre, and community tied to science fiction/fantasy fandom and a type of fan labor. The genre has been active since the early 1950s, and played primarily since the mid-1970s. The term (originally a typographical error) predates 1955.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Leidenfrost effect


The Leidenfrost effect is a phenomenon in which a liquid, in near contact with a mass significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer which keeps that liquid from boiling rapidly. This is most commonly seen when cooking; one sprinkles drops of water in a skillet to gauge its temperature—if the skillet's temperature is at or above the Leidenfrost point, the water skitters across the metal and takes longer to evaporate than it would in a skillet that is above boiling temperature, but below the temperature of the Leidenfrost point. The effect is also responsible for the ability of liquid nitrogen to skitter across floors. It has also been used in some potentially dangerous demonstrations, such as dipping a wet finger in molten lead or blowing out a mouthful of liquid nitrogen, both enacted without injury to the demonstrator. The latter is potentially lethal.

It is named after Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost, who discussed it in A Tract About Some Qualities of Common Water in 1756.

Monday, December 22, 2014

chain gang

In the sport of cycling, a chain gang is a group of cyclists in a close knit formation usually of two parallel lines.

The formation comes from the fact that it is harder to cycle at the front of a group than in the shelter of another rider. The rider behind enjoys the slipstream of the rider in front. If one rider were to stay at the front all the time, he would tire and the whole group would slow down. If the lead is rotated, the effort is distributed across the group and the speed can be higher or the individual effort less.

This effect is very significant - up to a 40% reduction in effort for the slip-streaming riders while the lead rider also benefits from reduced drag (somewhat under 10%) due to the air not closing up after him.

Sunday, December 21, 2014

eyesore

An eyesore is a building that is largely considered to look unpleasant or ugly. Its technical usage is as an alternative perspective to the notion of landmark. Common examples include dilapidated buildings, graffiti, litter, polluted areas and excessive commercial signage such as billboards. Some eyesores may be a matter of opinion such as controversial modern architecture (see also spite house), pylons or wind turbines. Natural eyesores include feces, mud and weeds.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Menarche

Menarche (Greek: μήν moon + αρχή beginning) is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female human beings. From both social and medical perspectives it is often considered the central event of female puberty, as it signals the possibility of fertility.

Girls experience menarche at different ages. The timing of menarche is influenced by female biology, as well as genetic and environmental factors, especially nutritional factors. The average age of menarche has declined over the last century but the magnitude of the decline and the factors responsible remain subjects of contention. The worldwide average age of menarche is very difficult to estimate accurately, and it varies significantly by geographical region, race, ethnicity and other characteristics. Various estimates have placed it at 13.0 Some estimates suggest that the median age of menarche worldwide is 14, and that there is a later age of onset in Asian populations compared to the West. The average age of menarche is about 12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK and 13.06 ± 0.10 years in Iceland. A study on girls in Istanbul, Turkey, found the median age at menarche to be 12.74 years.

Friday, December 19, 2014

O'clock

O'clock

In conjunction with a numeral, indicates the time within a twelve hour period (midnight to noon or noon to midnight), specifically the time when the hour hand of a clock points precisely to the symbol or marking corresponding to the designated numeral.
We are expected to be there at six o'clock in the morning!
It is two o'clock.
What o'clock is it?

Shortened form of “of the clock” or “on the clock”; that is, “according to the clock”.

Thursday, December 18, 2014

tarpit

A tarpit (also known as Teergrube, the German word for tarpit (German pronunciation: [ˈteːɐ̯ˌɡʁuːbə])) is a service on a computer system (usually a server) that delays incoming connections for as long as possible. The technique was developed as a defense against a computer worm, and the idea is that network abuses such as spamming or broad scanning are less effective if they take too long. The name is analogous with a tar pit, in which animals can get bogged down and slowly sink under the surface.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

narp

Acronym for Non-Athletic Regular Person. Your schools lacrosse team probably shouts it at you while you walk by.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

nebulizer


In medicine, a nebulizer (spelled nebuliser in British English) is a device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs.

Nebulizers are commonly used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, asthma, COPD and other respiratory diseases.

Monday, December 15, 2014

doolally

doolally (comparative more doolally, superlative most doolally)

  1. (chiefly UK) insane, mad or eccentric

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Plautdietsch

Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, was originally a Low Prussian variety of East Low German, with Dutch influence, that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia, today Polish territory. The word is another pronunciation of Plattdeutsch, or Low German. Plaut is the same word as German platt or Dutch plat, meaning 'flat' or 'low' but formerly meaning 'intelligible', and the name Dietsch corresponds etymologically to Dutch Duits and German Deutsch (both meaning "German"), which originally meant 'ordinary language, language of the people' in all the continental West Germanic languages.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

nincompoop

nincompoop (plural nincompoops)

A silly or foolish person.

Friday, December 12, 2014

fangle

fangle (plural fangles)

  1. (obsolete) A prop; a taking up; a new thing.
  2. Something newly fashioned; a novelty, a new fancy.
  3. A foolish innovation; a gewgaw; a trifling ornament.
  4. A conceit; whim.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

keet


keet (plural keets)

  1. A guinea fowl
  2. its young

Monday, December 8, 2014

storey

A storey (British English) or story (American English) is any level part of a building that could be used by people (for living, work, storage, recreation, etc.). The plurals are storeys and stories, respectively.

The terms floor, level, or deck can also be used in this sense; except that one may use "ground floor" and "ground level" for the floor closer to what is considered the ground or street level, whereas "storey" is commonly used only for levels strictly above or below that level The words "storey" and "floor" also generally exclude levels of the building that have no roof, even if they are used by people—such as the terrace on the top roof of many buildings.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

frenectomy

A frenectomy (also known as a frenulectomy, frenulotomy or frenotomy) is the removal of a frenulum, a small fold of tissue that prevents an organ in the body from moving too far. It can refer to frenula in several places on the human body. It is related to frenuloplasty, a surgical alteration in a frenulum. Done mostly for orthodontic purposes. Frenectomy is either performed inside the middle of upper lip, which is called labial frenectomy, or under the tongue, called lingual frenectomy. Frenectomy as it is a very common dental procedure in dental world and is performed both on children and adults.

Saturday, December 6, 2014

librettist

librettist (plural librettists)

  1. The person who writes a libretto, the text of a musical work.

Friday, December 5, 2014

Chickenhawk

Chickenhawk (also chicken hawk and chicken-hawk) is a political epithet used in the United States as ad hominem argument to criticize somebody who strongly supports a war or other military action (i.e., a War Hawk), yet who actively avoided military service when of age.

The term is meant to indicate that the person in question is cowardly or hypocritical for personally avoiding combat in the past while advocating that others go to war in the present. Generally, the implication is that "chickenhawks" lack the experience, judgment, or moral standing to make decisions about going to war. The term is not applied to those who avoided military service without subsequently adopting a hawkish political outlook.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

Netsuke

Netsuke (Japanese:根付) are miniature sculptures that were invented in 17th-century Japan to serve a practical function (the two Japanese characters ne+tsuke mean "root" and "to attach"). Traditional Japanese garments—robes called kosode and kimono—had no pockets; however, men who wore them needed a place to store their personal belongings, such as pipes, tobacco, money, seals, or medicines.

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Glulam


Glued laminated timber, also called Glulam, is a type of structural timber product composed of several layers of dimensioned timber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant adhesives. This material is called 'laminating stock' or lamstock for short.

By laminating several smaller pieces of timber, a single large, strong, structural member is manufactured from smaller pieces. These structural members are used as vertical columns or horizontal beams, as well as curved, arched shapes. In fact, glulam is the only engineered wood product that can be produced in curved shapes, offering unlimited design flexibility. It is available in a range of appearance characteristics to meet end-use requirements. Connections are usually made with bolts or plain steel dowels and steel plates.

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Mistpouffers

Mistpouffers are unexplained reports that sound like a cannon or a sonic boom. They have been heard in many waterfront communities around the world such as the banks of the river Ganges in India, the East Coast and inland Finger Lakes of the United States, as well as areas of the North Sea, Japan and Italy; and sometimes away from water.

Monday, December 1, 2014

sexsomnia

Sleep sex, or sexsomnia, is a condition in which a person will engage in sexual acts while still asleep. Such acts can include masturbation, fondling themselves or others, having sex with another person and in more extreme cases sexual assault and rape.

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Ahimsa

Ahimsa (Sanskrit: अहिंसा; IAST: ahiṃsā, Pāli: avihiṃsā) is a term meaning to do no harm (literally: the avoidance of violence – himsa). The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hims – to strike; himsa is injury or harm, a-himsa is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence.

It is an important tenet of some Indian religions (Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism). Ahimsa means kindness and non-violence towards all living things including animals; it respects living beings as a unity, the belief that all living things are connected. Indian leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi strongly believed in this principle. Avoidance of verbal and physical violence is also a part of this principle, although ahimsa recognizes self-defense when necessary, as a sign of a strong spirit. It is closely connected with the notion that all kinds of violence entail negative karmic consequences.

Saturday, November 29, 2014

palliative

palliative (comparative more palliative, superlative most palliative)

  1. (medicine) Minimising the progression of a disease and relieving undesirable symptoms for as long as possible, rather than attempting to cure the (usually incurable) disease.

Friday, November 28, 2014

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

adelphophagy

adelphophagy (uncountable)

  1. The consumption of one embryo by another in utero; particularly as it relates to certain amphibians, sharks and fishes.

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Ovoviviparity

Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos develop inside eggs that are retained within the mother's body until they are ready to hatch. Ovoviviparous animals are similar to viviparous species in that there is internal fertilization and the young are born live, but differ in that there is no placental connection and the unborn young are nourished by egg yolk; the mother's body does provide gas exchange (respiration), but that is largely necessary for oviparous animals as well.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Barratry

Barratry is a legal term with several meanings. In common law, barratry is the offense committed by people who are “overly officious in instigating or encouraging prosection of groundless litigation” or who bring “repeated or persistent acts of litigation” for the purposes of profit or harassment. It is a crime in some jurisdictions. Litigation for the purpose of profit is referred to as “Ambulance chasing”: If for the purpose of harassment, for example to silence critics, it is known as a Strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP). Many jurisdiction that otherwise have no barratry laws do have SLAPP laws.

Sunday, November 23, 2014

trial balloon

A trial balloon is information sent out to the media in order to observe the reaction of an audience. It can be used by companies sending out press releases to judge reaction by customers, or it can be used by politicians who deliberately leak information on a policy change under consideration. In politics trial balloons often take the form of an intentional news "leak" to assess public opinion.

For instance, a company might announce they are going to release a new computer program in a year, and then read the press coverage for hints on whether or not the product will have appeal in the marketplace. If the coverage is favourable the money will be spent on development, but if not the project can be cancelled before using up resources. A trial balloon under the company's own name is somewhat risky; if too many are "floated" the company risks becoming known as the company that cried wolf, and can find itself being ignored completely. In addition, the company can find that the product being planned is unworkable, leading to the phenomenon of vaporware.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

cachet

cachet (plural cachets)
  1. A special characteristic or quality.
    I remember when this diner was a quiet hangout, but lately it seems to be losing its cachet.
  2. (archaic) A seal, as of a letter.

Friday, November 21, 2014

chieftaincy

chieftaincy (plural chieftaincies)

  1. The position or period of rule of a chief.
  2. The area or population ruled by a chief.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

magister officiorum

The magister officiorum (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in Greek: μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire. In Byzantium, the office was eventually transformed into a senior honorary rank, until it disappeared in the 12th century.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Skræling

Skræling (Old Norse and Icelandic: skrælingi, plural skrælingjar) is the name the Norse Greenlanders used for the indigenous peoples they encountered in North America and Greenland. In surviving sources it is first applied to the Thule people, the Eskimo group with whom the Norse coexisted in Greenland after about the 13th century. In the sagas it is also used for the peoples of the region known as Vinland (probably Newfoundland) whom the Norse encountered during their expeditions there in the early 11th century.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Magister

Magister (also magistar, female form: Magistra from lat.: magisterTeacher”) is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.

Monday, November 17, 2014

Melanism


Melanism is an undue development of dark-colored pigment in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism. It is also the medical term for black jaundice. The word 'melanism' is deduced from the Greek: μελανός, meaning black pigment.

Pseudo-melanism, also called abundism, is another variant of pigmentation, characterized by dark spots or enlarged stripes, which cover a large part of the body of the animal making it appear melanistic. A deficiency in or total absence of melanin pigments is called amelanism.

The morbid deposition of black matter, often of a malignant character, causing pigmented tumors is called melanosis. For a description of melanin-related disorders see melanin, melanosis coli and ocular melanosis.

Sunday, November 16, 2014

ineluctable

ineluctable (comparative more ineluctable, superlative most ineluctable)

Impossible to avoid or escape; inescapable, irresistible.

Saturday, November 15, 2014

paper tiger

paper tiger (plural paper tigers)

(idiomatic) A seemingly fierce person or thing without the ability to back up their words.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Judenfrei

Judenfrei ("free of Jews") or Judenrein ("clean of Jews") was a Nazi term to designate an area cleansed of Jewish presence during The Holocaust.

While Judenfrei referred merely to "freeing" an area of all of its Jewish citizens, the term Judenrein (literally "clean of Jews") was also used. This had the stronger connotation that any trace of Jewish blood had been removed as an impurity.

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Pagophagia

Pagophagia is a form of the disorder pica involving the compulsive consumption of ice or iced drinks. It has been associated with iron deficiency anemia, and shown to respond to iron supplementation, leading some investigators to postulate that some forms of pica may be the result of nutritional deficiency. Ice tastes better if the individual is iron deficient. Chewing ice may lessen pain in glossitis related to iron deficiency anemia. However, the American Dental Association recommends not chewing ice because it can crack teeth; instead ice should be allowed to melt in the mouth.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Báb

Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází (Persian: سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی‎; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. He was a merchant from Shíráz, Persia, who at the age of twenty-four (on May 23, 1844) claimed to be the promised Qá'im (or Mahdi). After his declaration he took the title of Báb (Arabic: باب‎) meaning "Gate". He composed hundreds of letters and books (often termed tablets) in which he stated his messianic claims and defined his teachings, which constituted a new sharí'ah or religious law. His movement eventually acquired tens of thousands of supporters, was opposed by Iran's Shi'a clergy, and was suppressed by the Iranian government, leading to the persecution and killing of thousands of his followers, called Bábís. In 1850, at the age of thirty, the Báb was shot by a firing squad in Tabríz.

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

plasma window

The plasma window (not to be confused with a plasma shield) is a technology that fills a volume of space with plasma confined by a magnetic field. With current technology, this volume is quite small and the plasma is generated as a flat plane inside a cylindrical space.

Monday, November 10, 2014

Paregoric

Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, also known as tinctura opii camphorata, is a medication known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties.

Sunday, November 9, 2014

nephalist

nephalist (plural nephalists)

(obsolete, Temperance movement) One who practises nephalism; a teetotaller

Saturday, November 8, 2014

cognoscente

cognoscente (plural cognoscenti)

Someone possessing superior or specialized knowledge in a particular field; a connoisseur.

Friday, November 7, 2014

Wathaurong

Wathaurong, also called the Wada wurrung, are an Indigenous Australian tribe living in the area near Melbourne, Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula. They are part of the Kulin alliance. The Wathaurong language was spoken by 25 clans south of the Werribee River and the Bellarine Peninsula to Streatham. They were sometimes referred to by Europeans as the Barrabool people.

A headman or tribal leader was called an arweet. Arweet held the same tribal standing as a ngurungaeta of the Wurundjeri people.

Thursday, November 6, 2014

omphalocele

An omphalocele (British English: omphalocoele) is a type of abdominal wall defect in which the intestines, liver, and occasionally other organs remain outside of the abdomen in a sac because of a defect in the development of the muscles of the abdominal wall (exomphalos). Omphalocele occurs in 2.5/10,000 births and is associated with a high rate of mortality (25%) and severe malformations, such as cardiac anomalies (50%) and neural tube defect (40%). Approximately 15% of live-born infants with omphalocele have chromosomal abnormalities.

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Künstlerroman

A Künstlerroman (German pronunciation: [ˈkʏnstlɐ.ʁoˌmaːn]; plural -ane), meaning "artist's novel" in German, is a narrative about an artist's growth to maturity. It may be classified as a specific sub-genre of Bildungsroman; such a work, usually a novel, tends to depict the conflicts of a sensitive youth against the values of a bourgeois society of his or her time.

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Certiorari

Certiorari (/ˌsɜrʃəˈrɛər/, /-ˈrɛəri/, or /-ˈrɑri/) is a type of writ seeking judicial review, recognized in U.S., Roman, English, Philippine, and other law, meaning an order by a higher court directing a lower court, tribunal, or public authority to send the record in a given case for review.

Certiorari ("to be more fully informed") is the present passive infinitive of the Latin certiorare ("to show, prove, or ascertain").

Monday, November 3, 2014

Photopsia

Photopsia is the presence of perceived flashes of light. It is most commonly associated with posterior vitreous detachment, migraine with aura, migraine aura without headache, retinal break or detachment, occipital lobe infarction and sensory deprivation (ophthalmopathic hallucinations). Vitreous shrinkage or liquifaction, which are the most common causes of photopsia, cause a pull in vitreoretinal attachments, irritating the retina and causing it to discharge electrical impulses. These impulses are interpreted by brain as 'flashes'.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

neurocranium

In mammals, the neurocranium or braincase is the back part of the skull and houses the brain. In front of it is the interorbital region.

In humans, the neurocranium is (also) the upper portion of the skull. The other, lower part of the skull is the viscerocranium.

Evolutionarily, the human neurocranium has turned from being (just) the back part to (also) being the upper part, because during the evolutionary expansion of the brain, the neurocranium has overgrown the viscerocranium. The upper-frontmost part of the cranium also houses the evolutionarily newest part of the human brain, the frontal lobes.

Saturday, November 1, 2014

megacephalic

megacephalic (not comparable)

  1. Having an extremely large head.

Friday, October 31, 2014

Precession


Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. It can be defined as a change in direction of the rotation axis in which the second Euler angle (nutation) is constant. In physics, there are two types of precession: torque-free and torque-induced.

In astronomy, "precession" refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters, and especially to the Earth's precession of the equinoxes. See Precession (astronomy).

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Hotelier


Hotelier usually refers to a hotel manager

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

De gustibus non est disputandum

De gustibus non est disputandum

This is a Latin maxim meaning "In matters of taste, there can be no disputes" (literally, "There must not be debate concerning tastes.")

The implication is that everyone's personal preferences are merely subjective opinions that cannot be "right" or "wrong", so they should never be argued about as if they were.

This phrase is famously misquoted in Act I of Anton Chekhov's play The Seagull. The character Shamrayev conflates it with the phrase de mortuis nil nisi bonum (in the alternate form: de mortuis, aut bene aut nihil – "of the dead, either [speak] good or [say] nothing"), resulting in "de gustibus aut bene, aut nihil", "Let nothing be said of taste but what is good".

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Setun


Setun (Russian: Сетунь) was a balanced ternary computer developed in 1958 at Moscow State University. The device was built under the lead of Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov. It was the only modern ternary computer, using three-valued ternary logic instead of two-valued binary logic prevalent in computers before and after Setun's conception. The computer was built to fulfill the needs of the Moscow State University and was manufactured at the Kazan Mathematical plant. Fifty computers were built and production was then halted in 1965. In the period between 1965 and 1970, a regular binary computer was then used at Moscow State University to replace it. Although this replacement binary computer performed equally well, it was 2.5 times the cost of the Setun. In 1970, a new ternary computer, the Setun-70, was designed. The computer was named after the Setun River, which ends near Moscow University.

Monday, October 27, 2014

Telemetry

Telemetry is a technology that allows measurements to be made at a distance, via radio wave or IP network transmission and reception of the information. The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand.

Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g. using radio, hypersonic or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like phase line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM networks by using SMS to receive and transmit telemetry data.

Sunday, October 26, 2014

frisson

frisson (plural frissons)

  1. A sudden surge of excitement.
    I felt a frisson just as they were about to announce the winner in my category.
  2. A shiver.
    Whenever the villain's theme played in the movie I felt a sudden frisson down my back.

Saturday, October 25, 2014

PAGEOS

PAGEOS (PAssive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite) was a balloon satellite which was launched by the NASA in June 1966. Pageos had a diameter of exactly 100 feet (30.48 m), consisted of a 0.5 mils (12.7 µm) thick mylar plastic film coated with vapour deposited aluminium enclosing a volume of 524,000 cubic feet (14,800 m) and was used for the Weltnetz der Satellitentriangulation (Worldwide Satellite Triangulation Network) -- a global cooperation organized by Hellmut Schmid (Switzerland & USA) 1969-1973.

Finished in 1974, the network connected 46 stations (3000–5000 km distance) of all continents with an accuracy of 3–5 m (approx. 20 times better than terrestrial triangulations at that time).

Friday, October 24, 2014

satelloon

A balloon satellite (Also occasionally referred to as a "satelloon", which is a trademarked name owned by Gilmore Schjeldahl's G.T. Schjeldahl Company) is a satellite that is inflated with gas after it has been put into orbit.

Thursday, October 23, 2014

do-rag


A do-rag, also spelled doo-rag, du-rag, durag, is a piece of cloth used to cover the head. Sometimes made of nylon material and have a "skullcap" fit it would be referred to as a "wavecap", also spelled "wave cap". According to the Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam-Webster the term derives from 'do as in hairdo.

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

ulnar


In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is in relation with the ulnar nerve. The nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body (meaning unprotected by muscle or bone), so injury is common. This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, supplying the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips, perhaps as far back as the fingernail beds.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Vodka

Vodka (Russian: водка, Ukrainian: горілка, Belarusian: Гарэлка, Polish: wódka) is a distilled beverage. It is composed primarily of water and ethanol with traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is made by the distillation of fermented substances such as grains, potatoes, or sometimes fruits and/or sugar.

Monday, October 20, 2014

Gaucho

Gaucho (Spanish: [ˈɡautʃo]) or Gaúcho (Portuguese: [ɡaˈuʃu]) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, Gran Chaco, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Southern Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, eastern and southern Bolivia and Southern Chile. In Brazil, gaúcho is also the main gentilic of the people from the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Gaucho is a loose equivalent of the North American "cowboy" (vaquero, in Spanish). Like the North American word cowboy, the Chilean huaso, the Cuban guajiro, the Venezuelan or Colombian llanero or the Mexican charro, the term often connotes the 19th century more than the present day; then gauchos made up the majority of the rural population, herding cattle on the vast estancias, and practising hunting as their main economic activities.

There are several conflicting hypotheses concerning the origin of the term. It may derive from the Mapuche cauchu ("vagabond") or from the Quechua huachu ("orphan"), which gives also a different word in American Spanish, guacho and Brazilian Portuguese gaúcho. The first recorded uses of the term date from around the time of Argentine independence in 1816.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Joie de vivre


Joie de vivre (French pronunciation: [ʒwa də vivʁ], joy of living) is a French phrase often used in English to express a cheerful enjoyment of life; an exultation of spirit. Joie de vivre

"can be a joy of conversation, joy of eating, joy of anything one might do… And joie de vivre may be seen as a joy of everything, a comprehensive joy, a philosophy of life, a Weltanschauung. Robert's Dictionnaire says joie is sentiment exaltant ressenti par toute la conscience, that is, involves one's whole being."
Uniformly referenced in its standard French form by the educated, various corruptions are observed such as joie de vie which would translate to "joy of life."

Saturday, October 18, 2014

chouette

chouette!

  1. (informal) Uttered when one learns of something pleasing

Friday, October 17, 2014

Galangal


Galangal (galanga, blue ginger, laos) is a rhizome of plants in the ginger family Zingiberaceae, with culinary and medicinal uses originating in Indonesia. (Lao: ຂ່າ "kha"; Thai: ข่า "kha"; Malay: lengkuas (Alpinia galanga); traditional Mandarin: 南薑 or 高良薑; simplified Mandarin: 南姜 or 高良姜; Cantonese: lam keong, 藍薑; Vietnamese: riềng) [For each previous language's note, IPA please?].

The rhizomes are used in various Asian cuisines (for example in Thai and Lao tom yum and tom kha gai soups, Vietnamese Huế cuisine (tre) and throughout Indonesian cuisine, for example, in soto). Though it is related to and resembles ginger, there is little similarity in taste.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Jacaranda


Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Central America, Mexico, South America (especially Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Uruguay), and the Caribbean. It is also found in Asia, especially in Nepal. It is found throughout the Americas and Caribbean, and has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, India, Fiji and parts of Africa. The genus name is also used as the common name.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia, also known as breakthrough bleeding or spotting, is uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between the expected menstrual periods.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Perpetual war

Perpetual war refers to a lasting state of war with no clear ending conditions. It also describes a situation of ongoing tension that seems likely to escalate at any moment, similar to the Cold War.